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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #1 
Here are some links from topics where this subject matter has been treated previously :

http://forums.chandrakantha.com/viewtopic.php?f=21&t=7050&p=43079&hilit=seasons#p43079

http://forums.chandrakantha.com/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=5205&p=31203&hilit=seasons#p31203

Somewhere there is also a topic about winter or autumn ragas , but I can not find it anymore ...

Anyway , here is the site that explains the 6 seasons in an exhaustive way , together with lots of Jyotish vidya :

http://www.mypanchang.com/ritus.php
Quote:
Ritu -- .... means seasons. We all know what we learned in high school that how seasons occurs. We mostly see two main seasons -- Winter and Summer. India we have rainy season too that gives us three main ritus -- seasons -- Winter, Summer and Rainy seasons. Vedic rishis have further divided these into 6 ritus. They are:

•Vasant -- Spring
•Grishma -- Summer
•Varsha -- Monsoon
•Sharad -- Autumn
•Hemant -- Prewinter
•Shishir -- Winter

•Vasant: Feb/19 to April/19
•Grishma: April/20 to Jun/21
•Varsha: Jun/22 to Aug/22
•Sharad: Aug/23 to Oct/22
•Hemant: Oct/23 to Dec/21
•Shishir: Dec/22 to Feb/18
And here are the corresponding ragas according to Ustad Sarahang via Jaan e Kharabat
Quote:
Ustad Sarahang had provided an interesting extension to this theory in a TV interview that's up on youtube , stating that the six Ragas also have designated months and seasons in which they should be played. It goes something like this:

Bhairav - Libra & Scorpio (i.e. first two months of Autumn)
Malkauns - Aquarius & Pisces (i.e. last two months of Winter)
Shree - Sagittarius & Capricorn (i.e. late Autumn/early Winter)
Megh - Leo & Virgo (i.e. last two months of Summer)
Hindol - Aries & Taurus (i.e. first two months of Spring)
Deepak - Gemini & Cancer (i.e. late Spring/early Summer)
I like both nomenclatures/denominations from the Jyotish pandit and from Jaan e Kharabat , however I feel also the necessity to use a system that makes me feel at ease personally . So I would use ( I like to begin with Basant also ) :

•Vasant -- early Spring - Hindol
•Grishma -- late Spring / early Summer - Deepak
•Varsha -- late summer = Monsoon - Megh
•Sharad -- early Autumn - Bhairav
•Hemant -- Prewinter - Shree
•Shishir -- late Winter - Malkauns

I am aware that other sources use different pairings , for example Bhairav for Hemant and Shree for Shishir , but I will try to look into these matters in future posts .

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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #2 
From the many sources I´ve visited I see that the first three seasons and their respective ragas are almost always given in the same pairings :

•Basant -- Hindol
•Grishma -- Deepak
•Varsha -- Megh

But for the other 3 I have seen many confusing different pairings :
The ragas Bhairav , Shree and Malkauns are paired in different manners to the 3 remaining seasons .

For example Music Aesthetics by Manorma Sharma gives

•Sharad -- Shree
•Hemant -- Malkauns
•Shishir -- Bhairav

which is almost the opposite from the parings I gave in the first post ( which seem to be the most widely accepted ones )

That´s quite confusing for me , but maybe with the passing of the years I will get some intuition for an appropriate relationship between the cold seasons and its ragas . If I can gather some Shastra praman that would be even better ...

Anyway , for the time being , I will concentrate on Shree and try to find some info that goes back in time - For example from Deepak Raja :

http://swaratala.blogspot.co.at/2009/12/raga-shree-supplicant-or-belligerant.html
Quote:
Raga Shree: Supplicant, spooky, or belligerent?
Shree is amongst the oldest raga-s in the Hindustani art music pantheon. But, it is not clear whether the melodic entity currently identified by this name is, indeed, the one that claims considerable antiquity. Quite irrespective of its evolutionary path, the contemporary Shree also commands immense stature amongst raga-s because of its profundity, and its association with a powerful archetypal entity in Hindu mythology.

In mythology, the "Om" phonetic, because of its abstract nature, remains a calligraphic deity. But, "Shree", the phonetic-calligraphic archetype, is also personified as the Hindu goddess Lakshmi, the giver of wealth and prosperity, and the consort of Lord Vishnu, the preserver of the universe.

Amongst the major female deities in the Hindu pantheon, Lakshmi occupies a pride of place, ahead of the ferocious Durga, the destroyer of evil, and the gentle Saraswati, the giver of knowledge and accomplishments in the fine arts. Interestingly, Durga and Saraswati also have Ragas dedicated to them, although, neither of these two enjoy the status of Shree either in the popular mind, or in the world of music.

The Shree Suktam (Hymn to the goddess Lakshmi) from Rig Veda, considered the most powerful Mantra for invoking the blessings of Lakshmi, describes her as the Great Facilitator of all the material tasks of the world, and thus, the symbol of ultimate effectiveness. In this hymn, the supplicant prays for protection from hunger and poverty, and for the boon of fame and prosperity.

Interestingly, the Shree Suktam is totally silent on the legitimacy of the means by which man may acquire wealth, as also on the ends to which wealth might be deployed. In a sense, thus, mythology treats the blessings of Lakshmi as being desired, or desirable, for their own sake.

Whether oppressed by the fear of poverty, or fired by the lust for wealth, man has the choice between turning supplicant before the goddess, and setting out to conquer the world. But, quite irrespective of the stance he adopts, and perhaps precisely because he has a choice, man cannot escape oppressive anxiety as a permanent feature of dealing with his material self.

In comparison, the other two major goddesses do not give man any options. Militancy or even anxiety are totally inconsistent with Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge and the fine arts, who represents the highest level of culture. And, the ferocious Durga is the one whose help man seeks in order to destroy his enemies. In either case, supplication is the only route to divine grace.


Pandit Omkarnath Thakur (Sangeetanjali Vol. VI) provides a different perspective on the mythology and Rasa values of this raga. Of the six primary raga-s of the Hindustani tradition, five are said to have emanated from the five mouths of Lord Shiva, while the sixth is said to have emanated from the mouth of Parvati. Having emanated from "Shree-mukha", it was named Shree. He carries forward this association into describing the mood of the raga.

He suggests that Shree is a raga of the "Bhayanaka Rasa" (the sentiment of fear). To him, the prescribed time for performing this raga (around sunset) is the time when nature and humans are at peace, but the disembodied spirits (of whom Shiva is the Lord) become active, and aid the black magic of Tantriks. To him, the atmopshere created by the raga suggests activity in the netherworld -- spooky, and eerie in a manner that makes ordinary mortals fearful.

Even if the genesis of the association of the archetypal Shree with the Raga is no longer traceable, the metaphor is not out of place.
So , unfortunately there is no conclusive statement about the archetypical Shree from the raga-ragini system , what its characteristics were ; and if it was the same raga as today´s Shree...
More confusing is even the fact that the carnatic raga Sri has a completely different swara-set :
http://forums.chandrakantha.com/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=11170#p69412

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सहस्रनाम ततुलयम राम नाम वरानने |
Sahasranāma tat tulyam Rāma nāma Varānane .
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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #3 
I found a poetic description of the properties of the fundamental 6 ragas .

http://www.freefictionbooks.org/books/a/47802-autobiography?start=97
Quote:
Each one of the six basic RAGAS has a natural correspondence with a certain hour of the day, season of the year, and a presiding deity who bestows a particular potency.
Thus,
(1) the HINDOLE RAGA is heard only at dawn in the spring, to evoke the mood of universal love;
(2) DEEPAKA RAGA is played during the evening in summer, to arouse compassion;
(3) MEGHA RAGA is a melody for midday in the rainy season, to summon courage;
(4) BHAIRAVA RAGA is played in the mornings of August, September, October, to achieve tranquillity;
(5) SRI RAGA is reserved for autumn twilights, to attain pure love;
(6) MALKOUNSA RAGA is heard at midnights in winter, for valor.

Not sure however how accurate his imagery is , because other sources have other little tales or anecdotes for the ragas .
For example I just read in the book below ( A Study of Bundi School of Painting by Jiwan Sodhi ) that Raag Deepak is sung in the hours of darkness of the Spring season . Makes sense , doesn

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सहस्रनाम ततुलयम राम नाम वरानने |
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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #4 
Here is an intriguing correlation between the elements and the 6 primeval ragas :

http://www.suhasdjoshi.com/hcm/how-many-raags-are-there-total
Quote:
Music is a reflection of the nature and the elements around us. We believe that Lord Shiva created the 5 main Raags: “Shri” representing Earth, “Megh” representing Water, “Deepak” representing Fire, “Hindol” representing Air and “Bhairav” representing the Sky. We also believe that Goddess Parvati then created the sixth Raag “Malkauns”.
I wonder if his statement has any scriptural backing ... :| But some of the pairings make sense anyway .

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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #5 
Quote:
Originally Posted by "Christianamr"
Somewhere there is also a topic about winter or autumn ragas , but I can not find it anymore .
Yahan hai :

http://forums.chandrakantha.com/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=3663

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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #6 
There is something about the usage or raag Hemant that puzzles me and other people before me also .
For the majority Hemant represents a Prewinter raga ( Prewinter season = Hemant Ritu = late autumn = early winter ) , but I have encountered some explanations where it is given as a spring raga ... :?
That

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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #7 
Anyway , after so much confusion here is a bandish in raag Hemant that I found , which clearly has lyrics pointing to the prewinter-season .



Additionally , I went to the bandishbase of Swarganga , looked at the list of Bandishes proposed for Raag Hemant and picked up the most promising one for a seasonal description .
" Aavori aavori sakhee aa gaavo " .
And evidently , the line " ruturaaja hemaMta aayo hai " clearly confirms it as a Bandish describing Hemant Ritu .

https://www.swarganga.org/bandish_details.php?id=646

PS : Just now I realized that it

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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #8 
Now , very close to raag Hemant is raag Bhinna Shadja , form which it differs only in little details .
So adequately people say that like raag Hemant , Bhinna Shadja is also proper for the pre-winter season .
However , also on Swarganga , I found a bandish that is describing springtime ... :? :evil:

https://www.swarganga.org/bandish_details.php?id=580
Quote:
bolana laagi koyaliyaa
Daara Daara paata paata
nava kaliyana khila jaata
ata umaMgata moraa jiyaa |

aayee hai basaMta ritoo
naachata mora papihaa bole
sarasaraMga ne mana mohaliyaa ||

--------------

The cuckoo bird (Eudynamys scolopaceus) is singing. On every branch and leaf of the tree there are new flowers are blossoming and it makes me feel very happy.

The spring season is here, the peacocks are dancing and cuckoo bird is singing, all the beautiful colors of the spring have mesmerized me.

- contributed by Adwait Joshi
Ok now that I

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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #9 
Deepak Raja on one hand is hesitant about the prewinter connotations of raag Hemant :
Quote:
Raga Hemant has generally been performed in evening concerts, after sunset. However, the word “Hemant” means autumn. If the raga had seasonal associations in Ustad Alauddin Khan’s mind, these have yet to strike deep roots in the musical culture.
Whereas Parrikar is explicit about the late prewinter connotations of Hemant AND Bhinna Shadja ! :
Quote:
Baba Allauddin’s choice of the raga name is curious. “Hemant” (winter) is embedded in Sarangdeva’s shloka on Bhinna Shadaj: “Having Brahma for its presiding deity, it is sung on the occasions of universal festivity in the first quarter of the day in winter [Hemant] to express terror (bhayanaka) and disgust (bibhatsa)” (Shringy and Sharma, op. cit.).

The basic idea in Hemant is the positioning of pancham and rishab in the downward locus of Bhinna Shadaj. The swara-lagav of pancham is measured, and occasions great delight if done right.

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सहस्रनाम ततुलयम राम नाम वरानने |
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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #10 
Another raga that lends itself to various ambiguous connotations is Hindol Hem :

http://www.ammp.com/thennow.html
Quote:
Rag Hindol-Hem is a melody that Ali Akbar Khan composed and it is played in the Spring and Fall seasons. It is a combination of two already existing ragas: Hindol and Hemant. Its particular beauty comes from the use of both shuddha (natural) and tivra (sharp) Ma. Also, the notes Ga and Dha have very important roles in this ragas' development. The mood of Hindol-Hem is a combination of peace, pathos, joy, and heroism. Evening Rag
Again : Usable for Prewinter AND Spring ... As for Hemant and Bhinna Shadja ...
Possible reason : Hindol tends to Spring and Hemant to Prewinter .
At least here the ambivalence is understandable , but for the other two ragas no ...

The other ambiguous feature is the nomenclature .
Just see what Oceanofragas writes :
Quote:
The phrase, characteristic of Raga Hemkalyan, GMPGMG, is superimposed over the melodic structure of Raga Hindol to give the Raga HindolHem a separate identity.

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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #11 
Concerning the ocurrence of Bandishes in Bhinna Shadja reffering to Spring might be related to the fact that Bhinna Shadja belongs to the raagang of Hindol , which itself is the trademark raga of Springtime . ( Also the many liner notes of Cd
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सहस्रनाम ततुलयम राम नाम वरानने |
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Christianamr

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Reply with quote  #12 
Quote:
Originally Posted by "Christianamr"
Anyway , for the time being , I will concentrate on Shree and try to find some info that goes back in time - For example from Deepak Raja :

http://swaratala.blogspot.co.at/2009/12/raga-shree-supplicant-or-belligerant.html
Raga Shree: Supplicant, spooky, or belligerent?
Shree is amongst the oldest raga-s in the Hindustani art music pantheon. But, it is not clear whether the melodic entity currently identified by this name is, indeed, the one that claims considerable antiquity. Quite irrespective of its evolutionary path, the contemporary Shree also commands immense stature amongst raga-s because of its profundity, and its association with a powerful archetypal entity in Hindu mythology.

In mythology, the "Om" phonetic, because of its abstract nature, remains a calligraphic deity. But, "Shree", the phonetic-calligraphic archetype, is also personified as the Hindu goddess Lakshmi, the giver of wealth and prosperity, and the consort of Lord Vishnu, the preserver of the universe.

Amongst the major female deities in the Hindu pantheon, Lakshmi occupies a pride of place, ahead of the ferocious Durga, the destroyer of evil, and the gentle Saraswati, the giver of knowledge and accomplishments in the fine arts. Interestingly, Durga and Saraswati also have Ragas dedicated to them, although, neither of these two enjoy the status of Shree either in the popular mind, or in the world of music.

The Shree Suktam (Hymn to the goddess Lakshmi) from Rig Veda, considered the most powerful Mantra for invoking the blessings of Lakshmi, describes her as the Great Facilitator of all the material tasks of the world, and thus, the symbol of ultimate effectiveness. In this hymn, the supplicant prays for protection from hunger and poverty, and for the boon of fame and prosperity.

Interestingly, the Shree Suktam is totally silent on the legitimacy of the means by which man may acquire wealth, as also on the ends to which wealth might be deployed. In a sense, thus, mythology treats the blessings of Lakshmi as being desired, or desirable, for their own sake.

Whether oppressed by the fear of poverty, or fired by the lust for wealth, man has the choice between turning supplicant before the goddess, and setting out to conquer the world. But, quite irrespective of the stance he adopts, and perhaps precisely because he has a choice, man cannot escape oppressive anxiety as a permanent feature of dealing with his material self.

In comparison, the other two major goddesses do not give man any options. Militancy or even anxiety are totally inconsistent with Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge and the fine arts, who represents the highest level of culture. And, the ferocious Durga is the one whose help man seeks in order to destroy his enemies. In either case, supplication is the only route to divine grace.


Pandit Omkarnath Thakur (Sangeetanjali Vol. VI) provides a different perspective on the mythology and Rasa values of this raga. Of the six primary raga-s of the Hindustani tradition, five are said to have emanated from the five mouths of Lord Shiva, while the sixth is said to have emanated from the mouth of Parvati. Having emanated from "Shree-mukha", it was named Shree. He carries forward this association into describing the mood of the raga.

He suggests that Shree is a raga of the "Bhayanaka Rasa" (the sentiment of fear). To him, the prescribed time for performing this raga (around sunset) is the time when nature and humans are at peace, but the disembodied spirits (of whom Shiva is the Lord) become active, and aid the black magic of Tantriks. To him, the atmopshere created by the raga suggests activity in the netherworld -- spooky, and eerie in a manner that makes ordinary mortals fearful.

Even if the genesis of the association of the archetypal Shree with the Raga is no longer traceable, the metaphor is not out of place.
So , unfortunately there is no conclusive statement about the archetypical Shree from the raga-ragini system , what its characteristics were ; and if it was the same raga as today

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सहस्रनाम ततुलयम राम नाम वरानने |
Sahasranāma tat tulyam Rāma nāma Varānane .
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